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1. [p.19]  Strode received a character certificate (legitimatizing his settlement) in Nacogdoches on March 20, 1835. He was then sixty years old with a wife and ten children. He listed farmer, stock raiser, and laborer as his occupation. The survey for Strode indicated that his land grant was located on the Béxar road between the Neches and Trinity rivers and on the waters of the Neches River. R. B. Blake (comp.), Certificates of Entrance Relative to Admission to Settle in Texas Under Colinization [sic] Laws Contained in Nacogdoches Archives Transcripts; petition and survey, Jeremiah Strode folder, box 49, folder 55, Spanish Collection, GLO.

2. [p.20]  Mexico's liberal colonization program allowed married heads of household to claim 1 league (4,428.4 acres) and 1 labor (177.1 acres).  Single men were eligible for one-third league. Upon settlement in Texas, the colonist had to obtain a certificate of character and to affirm adherence to the Roman Catholic church. In practice, both these conditions were formalities.  The colonists could gain titles to their lands directly from the government or through an empresario.  Essentially, the empresarios were land agents with responsibility for bringing colonists to Texas.  As Gray heard, they could convey acceptable titles.  Each one had a grant set aside and was to receive ten leagues of land for successful settlement of one hundred families.  In practice, the state of Coahuila and Texas (which administered land distribution) made an excessive number of often overlapping grants, and many empresarios failed to go about the work of settlement in a serious manner. David J. Weber, The Mexican Frontier, 1821-1846, pp. 161-78.

3. [p.21]  The term "nullifier" refers to those who advocated the doctrine of nullification, a state's rights theory of John C. Calhoun of South Carolina, published with anonymous authorship in the South Carolina Exposition and Protest in 1828.  Shortly thereafter, Calhoun became vice president in the Jackson administration, but the issue exploded into the Nullification Crisis of 1832-33, resolved largely by compromise.  Essentially, Calhoun's theory provided that a state could declare a national law null and void.

4. [p.22]  Since 1820 the United States government had been selling Choctaw and other Indian lands as the native Americans were removed. New lands in the northern half of the state became available in 1832 for $1.25 per acre.  Margaret Swett Henson and Deolece Parmelee, The Cartwrights of San Augustine, p. 17.

5. [p.27]  John A. Quitman, born in New York on September 1, 1798, received training as a lawyer before moving to Mississippi in 1821.  He was the state chancellor 1828-34, and in his capacity as president of the state senate served as

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The Diary of William Fairfax Gray, from Virginia to Texas, 1835-1837
Copyright 1997 William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas