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revenue cutter Ingham, and purchased in New Orleans for the first navy of the Texas Republic. Under the command of Captain Charles E. Hawkins, it first appeared in Texas waters on January 10, 1836, carrying seven light cannon, six six-pounders, and a nine-pounder pivot gun. The Independence patrolled the coast between Galveston and Tampico to destroy material bound for the Mexican army in Texas, returning to New Orleans for refitting by March 12. It skirmished indecisively with the Urrea and Bravo and then withdrew to Galveston. In May of 1836, the Independence took President Burnet and Santa Anna to Velasco. It continued in service until being captured in battle at the mouth of the Brazos against two Mexican ships in April of 1837 and served thereafter in the navy of Mexico. Vertical Files, Revised Handbook.

31. [p.146]  A schooner of about 160 tons displacement, the Brutus was also purchased in New Orleans for the Texas Navy, with William A. Hurd appointed as captain and a crew of forty men. It carried an eighteen-pound swivel gun and nine "short guns." Arriving in Texas waters in early February of 1836, it was reputed to have poor sailing qualities. Blockaded at Matagorda by the Mexican brig Vencedor del Alamo, the Brutus was rescued by other Texas vessels and sent to New York for refitting in September of 1836. The Brutus continued to serve Texas, most memorably in engagements off the Yucatan coast in 1837, until running aground on Galveston Island on August 27 of that year and being destroyed later by a storm. Vertical Files, Revised Handbook.

32. [p.147]  The actual status of the Texas military position by most measurements was worse that these rumors indicated. Santa Anna's entire Texas force reached 8,000 in April of 1836, though they were divided. The unit of 800 men under Joaquín Ramirez y Sesma reached the west bank of the Colorado, but the advance slowed to look for a safe crossing. Houston's army declined in disappointment at not giving battle there. On April 6 Santa Anna at the head of 1,400 men reached the Brazos River near San Felipe de Austin. The greatest number of volunteers from the United States arrived after San Jacinto, though a significant part of Houston's army (over 20 percent) consisted of recent arrivals. Pohl, San Jacinto, pp. 11-14; Lack, Texas Revolutionary Experience, p. 127.

33. [p.147]  Gray wrote 15 cents per bale but meant 15 cents per pound.

34. [p.147]  The average depth in the channels was four to five feet. The bar is an oyster reef stretching east-west across the bay. Henson, "Notes on the Gray Diary," p. 6.

35. [p.147]  These merchant vessels did not have an official connection to the Texas Navy. Linda Ericson Devereaux, The Texas Navy, p. 4a.

36. [p.147]  Emily Austin Bryan Perry was the forty-year-old sister of Stephen F. Austin. Her first husband, James Bryan, died in 1822, leaving her with four young children. In 1824 she married James Franklin Perry. They had three children

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The Diary of William Fairfax Gray, from Virginia to Texas, 1835-1837
Copyright 1997 William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas