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had one thousand residents by December of that year, the attractions of equality could not overcome the problems of anarchy, and Owen admitted failure in May, 1827. Louise Bilebof Ketz et al. (eds.), Dictionary of American History, pp. 54-55.

2. [p.185]  The Texas secretary of state left for the United States on diplomatic assignment in April of 1836.

3. [p185.]  Gray's wife Millie had received a letter indicating that the date of his return might be as early as June 19. On the 23rd of the month she was "half disappointed at not seeing Mr. Gray." Her entry on June 26 reads, in part, "We were made very happy this morning by the arrival of Mr. Gray." The family did not attend church services because of wet and cold weather; Gray received five callers in the afternoon. Millie Gray Diary, pp. 81-82.


1. [p.191]  What is referred to as the Second Seminole War began in 1835 after many of that tribe, led by Osceola, repudiated an earlier treaty requiring them to move west. The war lasted into the 1840s as many Seminoles eluded the U. S. army and fought on in the Everglades. It caused the deaths of most of the remaining members of that tribe and 1,500 U. S. soldiers and civilians at the cost of $20,000,000. The war also sparked the removal of most of the remaining eastern Indians into Indian territory (Oklahoma). Thomas H. Johnson, The Oxford Companion to American History, p. 714.

2. [p.192]  During Sam Houston's first presidency, political order was largely established and the army tamed, but Texas continued to face problems of defense. Threats of external attack from Mexico and internal rebellion continued but were met in the cases of the Córdova rebellion and Cherokee wars of 1838-39 in Nacogdoches and the Vásquez and Woll invasions of 1842. A sense of insecurity helped to further the sentiment for annexation to the U. S.; nevertheless, slavery expanded rapidly during the Republic. Randolph B. Campbell, An Empire for Slavery: The Peculiar Institution in Texas, 1821-1865, pp. 50-55.

3. [p.193]  Menard was a Canadian-born and -educated Indian trader who came to Nacogdoches in 1829. He gained control of the site of the city of Galveston through what historian David G. McComb describes as a "complicated process." Before the Texas Revolution Menard as land agent had located Juan Seguín's headright on the eastern end of the island and had obtained a survey. Between October and December of 1836 this tract came to Menard through Thomas F.

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The Diary of William Fairfax Gray, from Virginia to Texas, 1835-1837
Copyright 1997 William P. Clements Center for Southwest Studies
Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas